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To prevent use of performance-enhancing substances, athletes must submit to drug tests that are conducted both in and out of competition by anti-doping officials or accredited medical staff. Athletes found to have taken substances on the World Anti-Doping Agency 's banned list receive sanctions and may be banned from competition for a period of time that corresponds to the seriousness of the infraction. Athletes may also be sanctioned for missing tests, seeking to avoid testing or tampering with results, refusing to submit to testing, through circumstantial evidence, or confession of use.
Doping has played a significant part in the modern history of track and field. State-sponsored doping in East Germany with hormones and anabolic steroids marked the rise of women from East Germany in track and field from the late s to the s. A number of these women, such as Marita Koch , broke world records and were highly successful at international competitions. Some athletes, who were following a doping plan from their teenage years, suffered significant health problems as a result of the regime.
In , The New York Times published an article detailing the use of doping by the Soviets in preparation for the Olympics. Track and field bears most similarity to the others categorised under the sport of athletics , specifically cross country running , and road forms of racewalking and running. All these forms of racing tend to record finishing times, have strictly defined start and finish points, and are generally individual in nature.
Middle- and long-distance runners usually participate in cross country and road events, in addition to the track. Track racewalkers are most typically road specialists as well. It is unusual for track and field athletes outside of these two groups to compete in cross country or road events. Varieties of strength athletics , such as the World's Strongest Man and highland games , often incorporate forms of footracing carrying heavy objects as well as throwing events such as the caber toss and keg toss , which bear similarities to track and field throwing events.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sport involving running, jumping and throwing disciplines. See also: History of athletics and History of sport. See also: List of athletics events. Main article: Sprint running. Further information: Middle-distance running. Main article: Long-distance running.
Main article: Relay race. Main articles: Hurdling and steeplechase. Main article: Long jump. Play media.
Main article: Triple jump. Main article: High jump. Main article: Pole vault. Main article: Shot put. Main article: Discus throw.
Main article: Javelin throw. Main article: Hammer throw. Main article: Combined track and field events. See also: Athletics competitions. See also: Athletics at multi-sport events. Further information: List of world records in athletics.
Further information: Doping in sport and List of doping cases in athletics. Retrieved 22 July Introductions to Track and Field Events. Retrieved on The Olympics: Ancient versus Modern. Retrieved on 23 March Perseus digital library. Retrieved 3 August Sweet, Erich Segal Sport and recreation in ancient Greece.
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