Hundreds of Yemenite Jews made their way to Ottoman Syria and chose to settle in the agricultural settlements. Yavne'eli reached Yemen at the beginning of and returned to Ottoman Syria in April Due to Yavne'eli's efforts, about 1, Jews left central and southern Yemen, with several hundred more arriving before The law dictated that, if Jewish boys or girls under the age of twelve were orphaned, they were to be forcibly converted to Islam , their connections to their families and communities were to be severed, and they had to be handed over to Muslim foster families.
The rule was based on the law that the prophet Mohammed is "the father of the orphans" , and on the fact that the Jews in Yemen were considered "under protection" , and the ruler was obligated to care for them. She claimed to be his niece due to his being her mother's brother.
According to her recollection of events, he was born Zekharia Hadad in to a Yemenite Jewish family in Ibb.
He lost his parents in a major disease epidemic at the age of eight, and, together with his 5-year-old sister, he was forcibly converted to Islam, and they were put under the care of separate foster families.
He was raised in the powerful al-Iryani family, and adopted an Islamic name. However, YemenOnline, an online newspaper, claimed to have conducted several interviews with several members of the al-Iryani family and residents of Iryan, and alleges that this claim of Jewish descent is merely a "fantasy" started in by Haolam Hazeh, an Israeli tabloid. Abdul Raheem is survived by tens of sons and grandsons. In , after the partition vote of the British Mandate of Palestine, Arab Muslim rioters, assisted by the local police force, engaged in a pogrom in Aden that killed 82 Jews and destroyed hundreds of Jewish homes.
Aden's Jewish community was economically paralyzed, as most of the Jewish stores and businesses were destroyed. Early in , the unfounded rumour of the ritual murder of two girls led to looting. This increasingly perilous situation led to the emigration of virtually the entire Yemenite and Adenese Jewish communities.
During this period, over 50, Jews emigrated to Israel. Specifically, the Jews were to arrive in Hashed Camp and live there until they could be airlifted to Israel. Hashed was an old British military camp in the desert, about a mile away from the city of Sheikh Othman. Over the course of the operation, hundreds of migrants died in Hashed Camp, as well as on the plane rides to Israel.
Some Yemenite Jews stayed behind during Operation Magic Carpet, and were left behind, many of them not wanting to leave sick or elderly relatives behind. Another wave of emigration took place in , with some 3, Yemenite Jews moving to Israel, and some others moving to the United States and United Kingdom. They were isolated and scattered throughout the mountainous regions of northern Yemen, and suffered shortages of food, clothing, and medicine, and lacked religious articles.
As a result, some converted to Islam. Their existence was unknown until , when an American diplomat stumbled across a small Jewish community in a remote region of northern Yemen.
For a short time afterward, Jewish organizations were allowed to travel openly in Yemen, distributing Hebrew books and materials. They had a rabbi, a functioning synagogue, and a mikveh. The town hosted a yeshiva , also funded by a Satmar-affiliated organization.
In spite of hostile conditions in recent years for Jews still living in Yemen, Yemeni security forces have gone to great lengths to try to convince the Jews to stay in their towns. These attempts, however, failed, and the authorities were forced to provide financial aid for the Jews so they would be able to rent accommodations in safer areas.
Despite an official ban on emigration, many Yemenite Jews emigrated to Israel, the United States, and the United Kingdom in the s, fleeing anti-Semitic persecution and seeking better Jewish marriage prospects.
Many of them had initially gone there to study, but had never returned. As of [update] , around Jews were living in the capital under government protection. Abadi confronted Nahari in the Raydah market, and shouted out, "Jew, accept the message of Islam", and opened fire with an AK Nahari was shot five times, and died.
During interrogation, Abadi proudly confessed his crime, and stated that, "these Jews must convert to Islam". Abadi had murdered his wife two years before, but had avoided prison by paying her family compensation. Dozens of Jews reported receiving death threats, and said that they had been subjected to violent harassment.
Nahari's killing and continual anti-Semitic harassment prompted approximately 20 other Jewish residents of Raydah to emigrate to Israel. In February , 10 Yemeni Jews immigrated to Israel, and in July , three families, or 16 people in total, followed suit. In August , Aharon Zindani, a Jewish community leader from Sana'a, was stabbed to death in a market in an anti-Semitic attack.
Subsequently, his wife and five children emigrated to Israel, and took his body with them for burial in Israel, with assistance from the Jewish Agency and the Israeli Foreign Ministry. In January , it was reported that a group of 60 Yemenite Jews had immigrated to Israel in a secret operation, arriving in Israel via a flight from Qatar. This was reported to be part of a larger operation which was being carried out in order to bring the approximately Jews left in Yemen to Israel in the coming months.
A spokesman for the party of former President Ali Abdullah Saleh denied the reports as incorrect. On March 21, , a group of 19 Yemenite Jews were flown to Israel in a secret operation, leaving the population at about In an July interview with a Yemenite rabbi, he claimed that they were definitely treated very well before the recent war in Yemen which has affected all communities in Yemen. He has also said that Yemenite Jews should have never travelled away from Yemen and that he believes thousands of Yemenite Jews will return to Yemen after the war ends.
In , the Mona Relief website reported February 25 : "Mona Relief's team in the capital Sana'a delivered today monthly food aid packages to Jewish minority families in Yemen. Mona Relief has been delivering food aid baskets to Jewish community in the capital Sana'a since Our project today was funded by Mona Relief's online fundraising campaign in indiegog The subject of Jewish surnames in Yemen is a complex one.
Most surnames are gentilic or toponymic surnames , meaning, they are derived from an ancestor's place of residence village or town name, such as Gadasi from al-Gades; Qa'taby from Qa'tabah; Manqadi from Manqadah; Damari from Dhamar, Damti from Damt, etc. Some names went through additional changes upon returning to the Land of Israel.
Israeli Yemenite Jews were initially discouraged from practicing their culture from the domination of the Ashkenazi majority, and the practice of using henna before weddings declined.
Beginning around late s there were discussions of honoring ethnic heritage and by a revival of some Yemenite customs occurred. The cathartic moment was an exhibition of a Yemeni bride was shown at the Israel Museum in Yemeni Jews are predominant among Israeli performers of Oriental music. Harel Skaat , who competed at Oslo in , is the son of a Yemenite Jewish father. Shahar Tzuberi is an Olympic windsurfer.
By the late fourth century CE, just as life for Jews in Christendom was beginning to turn starkly harsher, Judaism made its spectacular conquest in Arabia, when the kingdom of Himyar corresponding, territorially, to present-day Yemen, and the dominant power on the Arabian peninsula for years converted to Judaism.
For a long time, it was assumed that the Himyar conversion was confined to a small circle close to the king — Tiban As'ad Abu Karib, the last of the Tubban line —, and perhaps included the warrior aristocracy.
There is still a lively debate regarding the extent of Himyar Judaism; but the evidence of both inscriptions and, more significantly, excavations at the mountain of the capital of Zafar, which have uncovered what seems likely to be an ancient mikveh , suggests to many recent scholars though not all that the dramatic conversion was more profound, widespread and enduring. It may have been that the Himyarites were devotees of the 'sun and moon' as well as practicing eighth day circumcision, but at the time, the cult of the sun, as we have seen from synagogue mosaics of the period, was not controversial in Jewish practice.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jewish ethnic group. See also: Islamic—Jewish relations. Main article: Baladi-rite Prayer. Main article: Yemenite Hebrew. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Main article: Yemenite Jews in Israel. Further information: Operation Magic Carpet Yemen. Main article: Yemenite Children Affair. The New York Times. See also, Baladi-rite Prayer. Nevertheless, it listed ninety-one successive generations, starting with Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham. This view is based on a commentary composed by Rabbi Yihya Qorah of Sana'a d.
Retrieved October 28, Jamme, W. The original Nestorian account was compiled shortly after CE from extracts of old Syriac historical works no longer extant. His mother was a Jewess, of the inhabitants of Nisibis, who had been made a captive. He reigned after his father and killed a number of the Christians. Retrieved July 12, Oxford University Press. Montgomery Greenwood Publishing Group. Muhammad and the Origins of Islam.
State University of New York Press. Abdallah Bafaqih Eds. Jewish Social Studies. Indiana University Press. Princeton University Press. UNC Press Books. Brill Publishers. Eraqi Klorman Ozar Nechmad in Hebrew. Vienna: J. Ketavim Collected Papers in Hebrew. Executive Editor Norman A. Brill Online, May the spirit of God lead them, and may He guide me in the paths of righteousness; and may I be satisfied with length of days by His Divine Law, and may He console me with complete solace.
We have also received by way of tradition that we are from the group whom Ezra had sent word to come up [out of the exile] during the building of the Second Temple, but they stubbornly turned their backs [on him] and he then cursed them that they would remain all their lives in poverty.
Now, because of [our] iniquities, there was fulfilled in us in that exile galut , both, poverty in the [words of the] Law, as well as poverty in money, in an extraordinary manner — especially my small family! Also my grandfather, the father of my father, before him, used to be a teacher of babes there.
However, poverty clung to them, and famine, in such a way that the two curses of Ezra were fulfilled in us: the one, the curse just mentioned, along with the general curse hastily sent out against all teachers, that they might never become rich, lest they should leave-off their labour!
Shimon Saleh, vol. Targum on Song of Songs Now such things are old and are presently well-known. The Jewish War. Translated by Whiston, William. See: Tehuda , volume 30 ed. Yosef Tobi , Netanya , pp.
Moshe Gavra, vol. Nebe and A. According to Maimonides, certain Jews in Yemen had sent to him a letter in the year , evidently irritated as to why he had not mentioned the physical resurrection of the dead in his Hil. Teshuvah , chapter 8, and how that some persons in Yemen had begun to instruct, based on Maimonides' teaching, that when the body dies it will disintegrate and the soul will never return to such bodies after death.
Maimonides denied that he ever insinuated such things, and reiterated that the body would indeed resurrect, but that the "world to come" was something different in nature.
Avraham H. The people of the city of Aden Yemen posed an additional seven questions unto Rabbi Abraham ben Maimonides, preserved in a 15th—16th century document still in manuscript form pp. Yehoshua Hanagid". Mordechai Yitzhari , Benei Baraq Hebrew , pp. Sadan and Q. Here, the English translation of M.
The journey to Israel by land and sea took them seven months to accomplish. There, Rathjens writes on p. He read to us the names of the places from its tax rolls, which were in excellent order, because he is accountable to the Imam for the proper delivery of the taxes of the Jews of Sana'a, as throughout the [entire] country. Archived from the original on July 16, Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi Institute. March 25, Jewish Journal. Retrieved March 9, In Lifshitz, Berachyahu ed.
The Jewish Law Annual. Two additional factors played a crucial role in the eventual adoption by the majority of Yemenite Jewry of the new traditions, traditions that originate, for the most part, in the land of Israel and the Sefardic communities of the Diaspora.
One was the total absence of printers in Yemen: no works reflecting the local baladi liturgical and ritual customs could be printed, and they remained in manuscript. By contrast, printed books, many of which reflected the Sefardic shami traditions, were available, and not surprisingly, more and more Yemenite Jews preferred to acquire the less costly and easier to read printed books, notwithstanding the fact that they expressed a different tradition, rather than their own expensive and difficult to read manuscripts.
The second factor was the relatively rich flow of visitors to Yemen, generally emissaries of the Jewish communities and academies in the land of Israel, but also merchants from the Sefardic communities Columbia University Press.
Kiddushin 29b where it mentions a scholar who refused to wear a "sudarium" habit on his head until he was married, meaning, his head was only covered by a cap. Ethnologie der Jemenitischen Juden. Their best-known monument is the Amiriya Madrasa in Rada' District , which was built in The Tahiride were too weak either to contain the Zaydi imams or to defend themselves against foreign attacks.
Realizing how rich the Tahiride realm was, they decided to conquer it. The Mamluk victory was short-lived. The Zaydi highland tribes emerged as national heroes  by offering stiff, vigorous resistance to the Turkish occupation.
The Ottomans had two fundamental interests to safeguard in Yemen: The Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina, and the trade route with India in spices and textiles—both threatened, and the latter virtually eclipsed, by the arrival of the Portuguese in the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea in the early 16th century. Yemen is a land with no lord, an empty province. It would be not only possible but easy to capture, and should it be captured, it would be master of the lands of India and send every year a great amount of gold and jewels to Constantinople.
They held sway mainly in the southern coastal region, particularly around Zabid, Mocha , and Aden. We have seen no foundry like Yemen for our soldiers. Each time we have sent an expeditionary force there, it has melted away like salt dissolved in water. The Ottomans sent yet another expeditionary force to Zabid in , while Imam al-Mutawakkil Yahya Sharaf ad-Din was ruling the highlands independently.
Imam al-Mutawakkil Yahya chose his son Ali to succeed him, a decision that infuriated his other son al-Mutahhar ibn Yahya. He was considered a competent ruler given Yemen's notorious lawlessness, garrisoning the main cities, building new fortresses, and rendering secure the main routes.
He used his authority to take over several castles, some of which belonged to the former Rasulid kings. By , Yemen was split into two provinces, the highlands under the command of Ridvan Pasha and Tihama under Murad Pasha. Imam al-Mutahhar launched a propaganda campaign in which he claimed that the prophet Mohammed came to him in a dream and advised him to wage jihad against the Ottomans.
When Murad tried to relieve Sana'a, highland tribesmen ambushed his unit and slaughtered all of them. The last decisive encounter took place in Dhamar around , in which Murad Pasha was beheaded and his head sent to al-Mutahhar in Sana'a. When Mustafa Pasha sent an expeditionary force under the command of Uthman Pasha, it was defeated with great casualties.
He executed a number of sanjak-beys in Egypt and ordered Sinan Pasha to lead the entire Turkish army in Egypt to reconquer Yemen. The siege was lifted once a truce was reached. The Zaydi tribesmen in the northern highlands particularly those of Hashid and Bakil , were ever the Turkish bugbear in all Arabia. Pupils of al-Mansur al-Qasim suggested he should claim the imamate and fight the Turks. He declined at first, but the promotion of the Hanafi school of jurisprudence at the expense of Zaydi Islam infuriated al-Mansur al-Qasim.
He proclaimed the imamate in September , which was the same year the Ottoman authorities inaugurated al-Bakiriyya Mosque. His son Al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad succeeded him and confirmed the truce with the Ottomans. In , the Ottomans lost Aden and Lahej. In , Al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad sent an expeditionary force of 1, men to conquer Mecca. This plan proceeded successfully, causing the Yemenis over casualties, most from thirst.
He was succeeded by Al-Mutawakkil Isma'il , another son of al-Mansur al-Qasim, who conquered Yemen in its entirety, from Asir in the north to Dhofar in the east. The Qasimid state was the strongest Zaydi state to ever exist. See Yemeni Zaidi State for more information. During that period, Yemen was the sole coffee producer in the world. Fasilides of Ethiopia sent three diplomatic missions to Yemen, but the relations did not develop into a political alliance, as Fasilides had hoped, due to the rise of powerful feudalists in his country.
The rising power of the fervently Islamist Wahhabi movement on the Arabian Peninsula cost the Zaidi state its coastal possessions after The imam was able to regain them temporarily in , but new intervention by the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt in again wrested the coast from the ruler in Sana'a.
After , the imamate changed hands with great frequency and some imams were assassinated. After , the Zaidi polity descended into chaos that lasted for decades. The British were looking for a coal depot to service their steamers en route to India. It took tons of coal for a round-trip from Suez to Bombay. East India Company officials decided on Aden. The British Empire tried to reach an agreement with the Zaydi imam of Sana'a, permitting them a foothold in Mocha, and when unable to secure their position, they extracted a similar agreement from the Sultan of Lahej , enabling them to consolidate a position in Aden.
The British India government dispatched a warship under the command of Captain Stafford Bettesworth Haines to demand compensation. Haines bombarded Aden from his warship in January The ruler of Lahej, who was in Aden at the time, ordered his guards to defend the port, but they failed in the face of overwhelming military and naval power.
The British managed to occupy Aden and agreed to compensate the sultan with an annual payment of 6, riyals. The British realised that Aden's prosperity depended on their relations with the neighbouring tribes, which required that they rest on a firm and satisfactory basis.
The British government concluded "protection and friendship" treaties with nine tribes surrounding Aden, whereas they would remain independent from British interference in their affairs as long as they do not conclude treaties with foreigners non-Arab colonial powers. In , only Arabs were registered as original inhabitants of the city. The Turks asserted to the British that they held sovereignty over the whole of Arabia, including Yemen as the successor of Mohammed and the Chief of the Universal Caliphate.
They returned to the Tihama in after an absence of two centuries. Some citizens of Sana'a were desperate to return law and order to Yemen and asked the Ottoman Pasha in Tihama to pacify the country. By , the Ottomans succeeded in conquering the northern highlands.
Sana'a became the administrative capital of Yemen Vilayet. The Ottomans learned from their previous experience and worked on the disempowerment of local lords in the highland regions. They even attempted to secularize the Yemeni society, while Yemenite Jews came to perceive themselves in Yemeni nationalist terms. They introduced a series of reforms to enhance the country's economic welfare.
However, corruption was widespread in the Ottoman administration in Yemen. This was because only the worst of the officials were appointed because those who could avoid serving in Yemen did so.
In , the Hashid and Bakil tribes rebelled against the Ottomans; the Turks had to appease them with gifts to end the uprising. The tribal chiefs were difficult to appease and an endless cycle of violence curbed Ottoman efforts to pacify the land.
Ahmed Izzet Pasha proposed that the Ottoman army evacuate the highlands and confine itself to Tihama, and not unnecessarily burden itself with continuing military operation against the Zaydi tribes. They resented the Turkish Tanzimat and defied all attempts to impose a central government upon them.
Imam Yahya Hamidaddin led a rebellion against the Turks in ; the rebels disrupted the Ottoman ability to govern. Under the treaty, Imam Yahya was recognized as an autonomous leader of the Zaydi northern highlands. The Ottomans continued to rule Shafi'i areas in the mid-south until their departure in Imam Yahya hamid ed-Din al-Mutawakkil was ruling the northern highlands independently from After the Ottoman departure in , he sought to recapture the lands of his Qasimid ancestors.
He dreamed of Greater Yemen stretching from Asir to Dhofar. These schemes brought him into conflict with the de facto rulers in the territories claimed, namely the Idrisids , Ibn Saud , and the British government in Aden. The British responded by moving quickly towards Tihama and occupying al-Hudaydah. Then they handed it over to their Idrisi allies.
The British bombed Yahya's tribal forces using aircraft to which the tribes had no effective counter. In , Imam Yahya captured al-Hudaydah from the Idrisids. According to Imam Yahya, the Idrisis, along with the British, were nothing but recent intruders and should be driven out of Yemen permanently. This created a great deal of anxiety for the British, who interpreted it as recognition of Imam Yahya's claim to sovereignty over Greater Yemen, which included the Aden protectorate and Asir.
However, in , the Idrisis broke their accord with Ibn Saud and went back to Imam Yahya seeking help against Ibn Saud himself, who had begun liquidating their authority and expressed his desire to annex those territories into his own Saudi domain. Ibn Saud appealed to Britain for aid. After a military confrontation, Ibn Saud announced a ceasefire in May Imam Yahya ceded the three provinces of Najran, Asir, and Jazan for 20 years.
The imam recognized the British sovereignty over Aden protectorate for 40 years. According to Bernard Reich, Professor of Political Science and International Affairs at George Washington University , Yahya could have done better by reorganizing the Zaydi tribes of the northern highlands as his ancestors did against the Turks and British intruders and turn the lands they captured into another graveyard.
Starting in , hundreds of Yemeni people from Hajz, Al-Baetha, and Taiz migrated to Aden to work at ports, and as labourers.
This helped the population of Aden once again become predominantly Arab after, having been declared a free zone, it had become mostly foreigners. The Colony of Aden was divided into an eastern colony and a western colony.
Those were further divided into 23 sultanates and emirates, and several independent tribes that had no relationships with the sultanates. The deal between the sultanates and Britain detailed protection and complete control of foreign relations by the British. The Sultanate of Lahej was the only one in which the sultan was referred to as His Highness. Arab nationalism made an impact in some circles who opposed the lack of modernization efforts in the Mutawakkilite monarchy.
This became apparent when Imam Ahmad bin Yahya died in He was succeeded by his son, but army officers attempted to seize power, sparking the North Yemen Civil War. Egypt provided the rebels with weapons and financial assistance, but also sent a large military force to participate in the fighting.
Israel covertly supplied weapons to the royalists to keep the Egyptian military busy in Yemen and make Nasser less likely to initiate a conflict in the Sinai.
After six years of civil war, the military rebels were victorious February and formed the Yemen Arab Republic. The revolution in the north coincided with the Aden Emergency , which hastened the end of British rule in the south. This socialist state was later officially known as the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and a programme of nationalisation was begun. Relations between the two Yemeni states fluctuated between peaceful and hostile.
The South was supported by the Eastern bloc. The North, however, was not able to get the same connections. In , the two states fought a war. The war was resolved with a ceasefire and negotiations brokered by the Arab League , where it was declared that unification would eventually occur. This included Saudi Arabia. In , fresh fighting between the two states resumed and efforts were renewed to bring about unification.
Thousands were killed in in the South Yemen Civil War. President Ali Nasser Muhammad fled to the north and was later sentenced to death for treason. A new government formed. In , the two governments reached a full agreement on the joint governing of Yemen, and the countries were merged on 22 May , with Saleh as President.
After the invasion of Kuwait crisis in , Yemen's president opposed military intervention from non-Arab states.
In the absence of strong state institutions, elite politics in Yemen constituted a de facto form of collaborative governance , where competing tribal, regional, religious, and political interests agreed to hold themselves in check through tacit acceptance of the balance it produced.
Following food riots in major towns in , a new coalition government made up of the ruling parties from both the former Yemeni states was formed in However, Vice President al-Beidh withdrew to Aden in August and said he would not return to the government until his grievances were addressed.
These included northern violence against his Yemeni Socialist Party , as well as the economic marginalization of the south. An accord between northern and southern leaders was signed in Amman , Jordan on 20 February , but this could not stop the civil war. Ali Abdullah Saleh became Yemen's first directly elected president in the presidential election , winning In October , 17 U. President George W. Bush that Yemen was a partner in his War on Terror. In , violence surrounded a referendum , which apparently supported extending Saleh's rule and powers.
The Shia insurgency in Yemen began in June when dissident cleric Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi , head of the Zaidi Shia sect, launched an uprising against the Yemeni government. The rebels counter that they are "defending their community against discrimination" and government aggression. In , at least 36 people were killed in clashes across the country between police and protesters over rising fuel prices.
In the presidential election , held on 20 September, Saleh won with His main rival, Faisal bin Shamlan , received A suicide bomber killed eight Spanish tourists and two Yemenis in the province of Marib in July A series of bomb attacks occurred on police, official, diplomatic, foreign business, and tourism targets in Car bombings outside the U.
In , an opposition rally in Sana'a demanding electoral reform was met with police gunfire. The Yemeni army launched a fresh offensive against the Shia insurgents in , assisted by Saudi forces.
Tens of thousands of people were displaced by the fighting. A new ceasefire was agreed upon in February However, by the end of the year, Yemen claimed that 3, soldiers had been killed in renewed fighting. The Shia rebels accused Saudi Arabia of providing support to salafi groups to suppress Zaidism in Yemen.
On orders from U. President Barack Obama , U. Another airstrike was carried out on 24 December. The U. In , the Obama administration policy allowed targeting of people whose names are not known. ISIL has claimed recent, bloody suicide bombings in Houthi mosques and Sana'a when it once had no known presence in the country, while AQAP has continued to seize territory in eastern Yemen unhindered by American drone strikes.
It did not injure any civilians. The Yemeni revolution followed other Arab Spring mass protests in early The uprising was initially against unemployment, economic conditions, and corruption, as well as against the government's proposals to modify the constitution of Yemen so that Saleh's son could inherit the presidency.
In March , police snipers opened fire on a pro-democracy camp in Sana'a, killing more than 50 people. In May, dozens were killed in clashes between troops and tribal fighters in Sana'a. By this point, Saleh began to lose international support. On 23 November , Saleh flew to Riyadh, in neighbouring Saudi Arabia, to sign the Gulf Co-operation Council plan for political transition, which he had previously spurned. Upon signing the document, he agreed to legally transfer the office and powers of the presidency to his deputy, Vice President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi.
Hadi took office for a two-year term upon winning the uncontested presidential elections in February Al-Hadi would oversee the drafting of a new constitution, followed by parliamentary and presidential elections in Saleh returned in February In the face of objections from thousands of street protesters, parliament granted him full immunity from prosecution. Saleh's son, General Ahmed Ali Abdullah Saleh , continues to exercise a strong hold on sections of the military and security forces.
AQAP claimed responsibility for a February suicide attack on the presidential palace that killed 26 Republican Guards on the day that President Hadi was sworn in. AQAP was also behind a suicide bombing that killed 96 soldiers in Sana'a three months later. In September , a car bomb attack in Sana'a killed 11 people, a day after a local al-Qaeda leader Said al-Shihri was reported killed in the south.
By , there has been a "small contingent of U. The central government in Sana'a remained weak, staving off challenges from southern separatists and Shia rebels as well as AQAP.
The Shia insurgency intensified after Hadi took power, escalating in September as anti-government forces led by Abdul-Malik al-Houthi swept into the capital and forced Hadi to agree to a "unity" government.
Abdul-Malik al-Houthi, a cousin of the new acting president, called the takeover a "glorious revolution. Hadi managed to flee from Sana'a to Aden, his hometown and stronghold in the south , on 21 February He promptly gave a televised speech rescinding his resignation, condemning the coup, and calling for recognition as the constitutional president of Yemen.
All U. On 26 March , Saudi Arabia announced Operation Decisive Storm and began airstrikes and announced its intentions to lead a military coalition against the Houthis , whom they claimed were being aided by Iran , and began a force buildup along the Yemeni border. The United States announced that it was assisting with intelligence, targeting, and logistics. Saudi Arabia and Egypt would not rule out ground operations.
After Hadi troops took control of Aden from Houthis, jihadist groups became active in the city, and some terrorist incidents were linked to them such as Missionaries of Charity attack in Aden on 4 March More than 50, children in Yemen died from starvation in Many of the islands are volcanic; for example Jabal al-Tair had a volcanic eruption in , and before that in Although mainland Yemen is in the southern Arabian Peninsula and thus part of Asia , and its Hanish Islands and Perim in the Red Sea are associated with Asia, the archipelago of Socotra, which lies east of the horn of Somalia and is much closer to Africa than to Asia.
Yemen can be divided geographically into four main regions: the coastal plains in the west, the western highlands, the eastern highlands, and the Rub' al Khali in the east. Despite the aridity, the presence of many lagoons makes this region very marshy and a suitable breeding ground for malaria mosquitos. Extensive crescent-shaped sand dunes are present.
The evaporation in the Tihamah is so great that streams from the highlands never reach the sea, but they do contribute to extensive groundwater reserves. Today, these are heavily exploited for agricultural use. The Tihamah ends abruptly at the escarpment of the western highlands. Temperatures are warm in the day but fall dramatically at night. Perennial streams occur in the highlands, but these never reach the sea because of high evaporation in the Tihamah. This area is drier than the western highlands because of rain-shadow influences, but still receives sufficient rain in wet years for extensive cropping.
Water storage allows for irrigation and the growing of wheat and barley. Sana'a is in this region. It is populated only by Bedouin herders of camels. The growing scarcity of water is a source of increasing international concern.
See Water supply and sanitation in Yemen. The flora of Yemen is a mixture of the tropical African, Sudanian plant geographical region and the Saharo-Arabian region. The Sudanian element—characterized by relatively high rainfall—dominates the western mountains and parts of the highland plains. The Saharo-Arabian element dominates in the coastal plains, eastern mountain, and the eastern and northern desert plains. A high percentage of Yemen plants belong to tropical African plants of Sudanian regions.
Among the Sudanian element species, the following may be mentioned: Ficus spp. Many of the Saharo-Arabian species are endemic to the extensive sandy coastal plain the Tihamah. Among the fauna, the Arabian leopard , which would inhabit the mountains, is considered rare here. Yemen is a republic with a bicameral legislature. Under the constitution, an elected president, an elected seat Assembly of Representatives , and an appointed member Shura Council share power. The President is the head of state , and the Prime Minister is the head of government.
In Sana'a, a Supreme Political Council not recognized internationally forms the government. The constitution provides that the president be elected by popular vote from at least two candidates endorsed by at least 15 members of the Parliament.
The prime minister, in turn, is appointed by the president and must be approved by two-thirds of the Parliament. The presidential term of office is seven years, and the parliamentary term of elected office is six years.
Suffrage is universal for people age 18 and older, but only Muslims may hold elected office. President Ali Abdullah Saleh became the first elected President in reunified Yemen in though he had been President of unified Yemen since and president of North Yemen since He was re-elected to office in September Saleh's victory was marked by an election that international observers judged was "partly free," though the election was accompanied by violence, violations of press freedoms, and allegations of fraud.
Saleh remained almost uncontested in his seat of power until , when local frustration at his refusal to hold another round of elections, as combined with the impact of the Arab Spring, resulted in mass protests.
The constitution calls for an independent judiciary. The former northern and southern legal codes have been unified. The legal system includes separate commercial courts and a Supreme Court based in Sana'a. Sharia is the main source of laws, with many court cases being debated according to the religious basis of law and many judges being religious scholars as well as legal authorities.
The geography and ruling imams of North Yemen kept the country isolated from foreign influence before The country's relations with Saudi Arabia were defined by the Taif Agreement of , which delineated the northernmost part of the border between the two kingdoms and set the framework for commercial and other intercourse. The Taif Agreement has been renewed periodically in year increments, and its validity was reaffirmed in Relations with the British colonial authorities in Aden and the south were usually tense.
Following the September revolution, the Yemen Arab Republic became closely allied with and heavily dependent upon Egypt. Saudi Arabia aided the royalists in their attempt to defeat the Republicans and did not recognize the Yemen Arab Republic until At the same time, Saudi Arabia maintained direct contact with Yemeni tribes, which sometimes strained its official relations with the Yemeni Government.
Saudi Arabia remained hostile to any form of political and social reform in Yemen  and continued to provide financial support for tribal elites. In February , North Yemen joined Iraq, Jordan, and Egypt in forming the Arab Cooperation Council ACC , an organization created partly in response to the founding of the Gulf Cooperation Council and intended to foster closer economic cooperation and integration among its members.
Yemen is not a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council mainly for its republican government. Yemen is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League , and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation , and also participates in the nonaligned movement.
Since the end of the civil war, tangible progress has been made on the diplomatic front in restoring normal relations with Yemen's neighbors. In the summer of , Yemen and Saudi Arabia signed an International Border Treaty settling a year-old dispute over the location of the border between the two countries. Until the signing of the Yemen-Saudi Arabia peace treaty in July ,  Yemen's northern border was undefined; the Arabian Desert prevented any human habitation there.
Yemen settled its dispute with Eritrea over the Hanish Islands in The Saudi — Yemen barrier was constructed by Saudi Arabia against an influx of illegal immigrants and against the smuggling of drugs and weapons. As a result of funding cuts, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs UNOCHA stated that the UN agencies were forced to either close or reduce more than 75 per cent of its programs that year alone, affecting more than 8 million people.
Saudi Arabia had been leading a Western-backed military coalition, including the United Arab Emirates as a key member, which intervened in Yemen in , in a bid to restore the government ousted from power by the Houthi movement.
The government and its security forces, often considered to suffer from rampant corruption,  have been responsible for torture, inhumane treatment, and extrajudicial executions. Doctors were charmers who used various forms of folk-medicine to cure and ward away the evil spirits.
Yet the Yemenite Jews lived a life based on Biblical prophecy and tradition which always emphasized redemption. They had to walk eluding the robber bands and the various sheiks who charged a head tax for safe passage through their territory. But after reaching the "promised land" they wrote back that the kingdom of Israel is being rebuilt and David ben Gurion now rules in Israel.
Even without newspapers and radios, the news of the new state of Israel was spread by word of mouth. The longing of the Yemenite Jews to return to Zion burnt strongly and almost insanely in their hearts. But how could they leave? The Arab league continued a state of belligerency against the Jewish state, and in policy all Arab countries were united against the Jews, the enemy of the Arabs.
They were impoverish and under the rule of the Iman, a fundamentalist Muslim. In addition, the British who administered Yemen and Aden were considered unfavorable to helping the Jewish state.
Also why did the British allow the Jewish agency and Israeli government to utilize the Aden protectorate to allow Jews to come to Israel? Intra Arab Fears The Arabs in Yemen had suffered under the long rule of the corrupt Muslim Turks Arabs before the British defeated the Turks and became the major power in this part of the world.
In addition, the Arab Yemenite leaders did not trust their Saudi Arabia neighbors and feared that it might try to annex Yemen to Saudi Arabia. The tremendous victory of the tiny Jewish state against the large and belligerent Arab states was not lost to the Yemeni ruler.
He reasoned that some day he might need them as an ally against a belligerent Arab League member, and as the Arab proverb states: " The enemy of your enemy is your friend.
Defeat of their Arab trained armies did not influence the local administration adversely. They accepted the reality of the state of Israel and allowed the use of the Aden protectorate for setting up a camp to receive the inflow of Yemenites and the use of a British airbase to take the Jews to Israel. They required only that the movement of Yemenites be kept secret so as not to prejudice their relations with the Arab states.
Movement A camp was set up in Hashed, a desolate desert area remote from local villages and word spread throughout the Jewish Yemenite world that transportation awaited them in Aden. Tents were set up to accommodate the immigrants who came on their own volition.Jun 16, · Some Yemenite Jews, over a third of the Sunni Arab country's isolated Jewish community, will be making their way to the United States in the coming .