Andromeda and the Triangulum Galaxy had a very close passage 2—4 billion years ago. This event produced high rates of star formation across the Andromeda Galaxy's disk—even some globular clusters—and disturbed M33's outer disk. Over the past 2 billion years, star formation throughout Andromeda's disk is thought to have decreased to the point of near-inactivity.
There have been interactions with satellite galaxies like M32, M, or others that have already been absorbed by Andromeda Galaxy. These interactions have formed structures like Andromeda's Giant Stellar Stream.
A galactic merger roughly million years ago is believed to be responsible for a counter-rotating disk of gas found in the center of Andromeda as well as the presence there of a relatively young million years old stellar population.
At least four distinct techniques have been used to estimate distances from Earth to the Andromeda Galaxy. A Cepheid variable method estimated the distance to be 2. The binary [c] is two hot blue stars of types O and B. By studying the eclipses of the stars, astronomers were able to measure their sizes. Knowing the sizes and temperatures of the stars, they were able to measure their absolute magnitude.
When the visual and absolute magnitudes are known, the distance to the star can be calculated. The stars lie at a distance of 2. The TRGB method was also used in giving a distance of 2.
Until , mass estimates for the Andromeda Galaxy's halo including dark matter gave a value of approximately 1. This contradicted earlier measurements that seemed to indicate that the Andromeda Galaxy and Milky Way are almost equal in mass.
As of , current calculations based on escape velocity and dynamical mass measurements put the Andromeda Galaxy at 0. In addition to stars, Andromeda Galaxy's interstellar medium contains at least 7. Andromeda Galaxy is surrounded by a massive halo of hot gas that is estimated to contain half the mass of the stars in the galaxy.
The nearly invisible halo stretches about a million light-years from its host galaxy, halfway to our Milky Way galaxy. Simulations of galaxies indicate the halo formed at the same time as the Andromeda Galaxy. The halo is enriched in elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, formed from supernovae and its properties are those expected for a galaxy that lies in the "green valley" of the Galaxy color—magnitude diagram see below. Supernovae erupt in Andromeda Galaxy's star-filled disk and eject these heavier elements into space.
Over Andromeda Galaxy's lifetime, nearly half of the heavy elements made by its stars have been ejected far beyond the galaxy's ,light-year-diameter stellar disk. The rate of star formation in the Milky Way is much higher, with Andromeda Galaxy producing only about one solar mass per year compared to 3—5 solar masses for the Milky Way.
The rate of novae in the Milky Way is also double that of Andromeda Galaxy. According to recent studies, the Andromeda Galaxy lies in what in the Galaxy color—magnitude diagram is known as the "green valley," a region populated by galaxies like the Milky Way in transition from the "blue cloud" galaxies actively forming new stars to the "red sequence" galaxies that lack star formation.
Star formation activity in green valley galaxies is slowing as they run out of star-forming gas in the interstellar medium. In simulated galaxies with similar properties to Andromeda Galaxy, star formation is expected to extinguish within about five billion years from the now, even accounting for the expected, short-term increase in the rate of star formation due to the collision between Andromeda Galaxy and the Milky Way.
Based on its appearance in visible light, the Andromeda Galaxy is classified as an SA s b galaxy in the de Vaucouleurs—Sandage extended classification system of spiral galaxies. In , astronomers used the Keck telescopes to show that the tenuous sprinkle of stars extending outward from the galaxy is actually part of the main disk itself.
This constitutes evidence that there is a vast, extended stellar disk that makes the galaxy more than , light-years 67 kiloparsecs in diameter. Analysis of the cross-sectional shape of the galaxy appears to demonstrate a pronounced, S-shaped warp, rather than just a flat disk.
The Galaxy M33 could be responsible for some warp in Andromeda's arms, though more precise distances and radial velocities are required. Spectroscopic studies have provided detailed measurements of the rotational velocity of the Andromeda Galaxy as a function of radial distance from the core.
The spiral arms of the Andromeda Galaxy are outlined by a series of HII regions , first studied in great detail by Walter Baade and described by him as resembling "beads on a string". His studies show two spiral arms that appear to be tightly wound, although they are more widely spaced than in our galaxy. Since the Andromeda Galaxy is seen close to edge-on, it is difficult to study its spiral structure. Alternative spiral structures have been proposed such as a single spiral arm  or a flocculent  pattern of long, filamentary, and thick spiral arms.
Andromedian Population The Galactic Federation of Andromedian is a gargantuan, efficient nation, ruled by Chancellor Sarek the Wise with an even hand, and notable for its museums and concert halls, multi-spousal wedding ceremonies, and frequent executions. National Happenings Most Recent Government Activity: 2 days 18 hours ago 2 days 18 hours ago : Following new legislation in Andromedian , preschoolers practice disarming active shooters before naptime.
I just dreamed about 3 small children bald in their pajamas 1 pale and 2 is brown skin I thought it's mystical elements search it for elementals awakening which is wise one, merpeople pixies fairies elementals and starseeds then I keep on searching what kind of soul am I, then in you tube It was pop up the Andromedans, I just found out that I'm one of them.. This is a great awakening.. Am usually knew my telepathic abilities but ignoring them..
Now I knew it.. I want to know more bout my origin.. Same here. I recently found out I was an Andromedan starseed late last year. Before and after I found out, I would have dreams of being me then a person recognizes I have sonething different about me. They then show me something and I am joined by my "friends" which are 8 other beings similar to me, and they always tell me they've been waiting for me. I have no definite shape or form and in some cases shapeshift as the dreams continues. My friends also have no definite shape or form.
Sometimes we are threatened by some other race or such. I just really want to know exactly what it means, and more about Andromedans in general. When I was 16 my first time meditating, I saw a blue face with black eyes, all black, with pointy ears black hair and what looked like surrounded by many different colored bright stuffed animals and the face smiled and its teeth were sharp.
At the time I was nervous and fearful and thought perhaps I opened a door with a dark spirit so after that moment I stopped meditating and put as little thought to that as I could. Our government is aware of its presence and it is ominous to them.
It means the silver light. The ship has warriors that would defy imagination. It can blast a continent to the bottom of the sea. It could rotate our planet and send it spinning out of orbit.
The ship is here because of the disease on this planet. It is here because of the collapse of consciousness of civilization. It is here also because of the changes that are going to occur here. And, it is here because of another force that is engaged on this planet.
Its truth and its words have been misused, misconstrued, and taken by powerful men to enslave people. And, it has been allowed. But, these entities are back now for truth.
But, their appearance is off radar, no one here, ever really being able to define their appearances because they chamoflauge themselves into any species that they come around.
Incarnated, they are a bit over dominating, strong, self assertive, confident, and the attention of any crowd. They love being noticed, they love being the center of everyone's focus.
Even though, they are so smart, sometimes they make some really bad decision making here in the physical life. This is the web page where I have archived all of the international interviews in which I participated.
Thank you. Andromeda Council - YouTube Channel. You can find the Andromeda Council - YouTube channel - with. It is born from the belief that with a little help, the strength and spirit of the great Sioux Nation will thrive once again. Their thrift store, which is located in the town center, provides job training, employment, and availability of goods.
They provide critical aid to the tribe with donations of infant formula, diapers, food, clothing, household items and firewood. True Sioux Hope has garnered more than million media impressions, and your support will allow them to continue to Help Hope Thrive! However much help you can provide, I absolutely know they will appreciate your kindness. Pilamaya yelo. Peace to you all. Image provided courtesy of Josephine Wall.
RSS feeds. Letters to the Andromeda. He asks people to " He goes on to say, " We have been warned from ancient prophecies of these times we live in today, but have. To understand the depth of this message you must recognize the importance of Sacred Sites and realize the interconnectedness of what is happening today, in reflection of the continued massacres that are occurring on other lands and our own Americas.